It is expected that the year 2014 is a milestone in changing the design of the garbage problem in Brazil, since 2010, when it was enacted the law that instituted the national solid waste policy, there is a new approach to this problem.
Today, each one of us produces on average 1.2 kg of garbage per day, in our country. If we make a simple calculation with the 365 days of the year and a population of 202 million (IBGE projection), we can conclude that our production of garbage already exceeds the home of 88 billion pounds annually.
We still have the wrong conception that our concern with the trash ends when we get rid of him, placing him at the door of our homes. We have the culture of play all out, without worrying about the destination of the products acquired.
Despite the importance of solid waste law, which will complete in August four years ago, a lot is still only on paper.
Some of them relate precisely to the greater involvement of society, to the extent that we become agents in the life cycle of the products. It's called "shared responsibility", where from manufacturers to final consumers become responsible for waste generated in this process and for its correct destination.
The law establishes as a aims, first, to not waste generation, second generation reduction. This is a great challenge, reducing the production of waste. It undergoes a change in highly consumerist lifestyle and disposable. Then, the law establishes that the amount of residue generated should be reused or recycled, i.e. should return to the productive cycle. Finally, the tailings that are not amenable to reuse or recycling, should be willing to appropriate environmentally, as in landfills.
Following these goals, it is clear that the waste produced has the connotation of something unworkable and becomes part of the production process, turning into inputs, new products or even generating electric energy, which contributes to reducing greenhouse gas emissions (the great villain of global warming).
The most important change is that the design reuse and recycling reduces the pressure on the natural resources, because it reduces the demand for raw material that is replaced by inputs from what we discard. As I said the chemist Lavoisier, 18 century, "in nature nothing is created, nothing is lost, everything is transformed".
However, we are still far from achieving that waste is transformed and are part of the production process, as less than 2% of the waste returns to the production chain. For this reason, we've lost more than $ 8 million a year, according to the IPEA. Despite the accession of several municipalities, is still shy the adoption of selective collection and, unfortunately, there are places in which your deployment is only present in advertising campaigns.
It is worth mentioning, that the law of the Brazilian solid waste Policy established the four-year term, which expires in August this year, to close out of the dumps, highly degrading not only for the environment but also to the population so unworthy, lives it. Who can forget the dump of the novel Brazil Avenue?
There is no updated data, but until 2011, more than 1,500 Brazilian municipalities had their waste in dumps and still there was no significant change in these numbers. In Goiás, the reality is different, it is estimated that over 60% of our cities are in the same situation.
It is worth mentioning that there are important mechanisms in the law to make this work, as the implementation of the plans of solid waste, as well as its management in an integrated manner by the municipalities.
While all eyes turn to the World Cup, little or nothing is said about the changes that need to be implemented for law enforcement of solid waste. We will continue to push the garbage under the rug, losing economic, social and environmental wealth under it.
Luciane Martins de Araújo
Lawyer, environmental consultant, PhD in Environmental Sciences, master of laws, Professor of the master in law, international relations and development of PUC-GOIÁS, Member of the National Commission on environmental law of the Brazilian Bar Associationfirstname.lastname@example.org